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Nuke Agreement

15-16 October 2013: Iran and the P5-1 meet in Geneva to resume negotiations on Iran`s nuclear programme. At the end of the discussions, the parties issue a joint statement describing the meetings as “substantial and forward-looking.” The statement also states that Iran has submitted a new proposal that the P5-1 has carefully considered as an “important contribution” to the discussions. The proposal contains a broad framework for a comprehensive agreement and an interim confidence-building measure, which is expected to be put in place within the next 3 to 6 months, but no details are provided, as the parties have agreed to keep the negotiations confidential. 14 January 2020: E3 (Britain, France, Germany) triggers the dispute settlement mechanism of the agreement and declares its intention to “find a way to resolve the impasse through constructive diplomatic dialogue, while preserving the agreement and remaining within its framework”. The dispute settlement mechanism, if referred to the UN Security Council, has the potential to lead to the reintroduction of UN sanctions against Iran, which were lifted under the 2015 agreement. However, E3 reiterated that “our three countries are not participating in a campaign to exert maximum pressure on Iran.” In January 2016, the IAEA certified that Iran had complied with the provisional requirements of the nuclear agreement, including the offline inclusion of thousands of centrifuges, the futility of the core of the Arak heavy water reactor and the sale of low-enriched surplus uranium to Russia. At the November 10 press conference, U.S. Secretary of State Kerry said the parties had “reduced differences” and had made considerable progress in reaching an agreement during the talks. The treaty, which was signed in 1968, came into force in 1970. As requested by the text, the contracting parties to the NPT met in May 1995 after 25 years and agreed to renew the contract indefinitely. [4] More countries are parties to the non-proliferation treaty than any other arms control and disarmament treaty, demonstrating the importance of the treaty. [3] Since August 2016, 191 states have become parties to the treaty, although North Korea, which joined in 1985 but never agreed, announced its withdrawal from the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 2003 after blowing up nuclear facilities in violation of its commitments.

[5] Four UN member states have never accepted the non-proliferation and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, three of which possess nuclear weapons or are presumed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Israel and Pakistan. In addition, South Sudan, founded in 2011, has not joined. Article III: Any non-NWS party undertakes to enter into an agreement with the IAEA on the application of its protective measures to all nuclear substances in all peaceful nuclear activities of the State and to prevent the diversion of such materials to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.