The preferential trade agreement between India and Iran should be beneficial to both countries, since Iran is not a member of the WTO, so there is no obligation to respect tariffs in accordance with the rates set. However, given the conflict between India and the deteriorating relations between Beijing and New Delhi, the bilateral meeting between India and Iran could be jeopardized. The sixth round of talks on the signing of a preferential trade agreement between Tehran and New Delhi, which will facilitate mutual trade, will be held in the presence of economic and political experts from both countries. In the 1990s, India and Iran supported the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against the Taliban regime. They continue to work together to support the broad anti-Taliban government of Ashraf Ghani, supported by the United States. The two countries signed a defence cooperation agreement in December 2002.  Although talks between Iran and India for a reciprocal preferential trade pact began more than a decade ago and five rounds of negotiations have taken place to date, this agreement has not yet been signed. Excerpts from Articles 1, 9, 10, 11 and 13 of the trade and maritime agreement between the Iranian imperial government and the Indian government, as cited in the preamble to the trade agreement signed on 16 August 1962. Relations between India and Iran focus on bilateral relations between India and Iran. Independent India and Iran began diplomatic relations on 15 March 1950.
For much of the Cold War, relations between the Republic of India and the former imperial state of Iran suffered because of their different political interests – non-aligned India had strong military relations with the Soviet Union, while Iran instilled close ties with the United States.  After the 1979 revolution, relations between Iran and India briefly intensified. However, the continued support of Pakistan and India during the Iran-Iraq war has hampered the development of Indo-Iranian relations.  In the 1990s, India and Iran supported the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against the Taliban regime.